So MUMPS/M, C, FORTRAN, and BASIC are procedural programming languages via this link http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/MUMPS.html. So I’ll answer some of my questions so there can be some more clarity between the different concepts and technologies for current and future people interested this stuff..
1. VistA is an application that is built with M similar to how C is used to make videogames (http://www.quora.com/What-programming-language-is-most-used-to-make-video-games-Which-is-best). One difference seems to be that M is a “high-level language” and C is a “low level” language via this paper: (http://www.vistaexpertise.net/docs/mumps_language_issues_1.pdf). I don’t know the difference. Clarification here would be helpful here.
2. M-web-server (by Sam Habiel) is a web http server written in M like how the Apache web server is written in C/C++ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache_HTTP_Server)
3. Kernel is another name for an operating system like Windows (Microsoft) or OS X (Apple) or Linux or Ubuntu etc. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel_%28operating_system%29). The point
is that the VistA kernel is written in MUMPS (a language created by Neil Papparlardo, colleagues, and Dr. Octo’s lab via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MUMPS)
4. Carewebframework is a electronic health record application like Cerner, Epic, Practice Fusion, etc. It seems to be written in Java. Comparison between C and Java here: http://www.durofy.com/10-major-differences-between-c-and-java/. Security and access protocols used seem to be “Spring” via http://projects.spring.io/spring-security/.
5. EWD.js seems to be a suite of technologies that can talk to MUMPS databases via JSON? (a format for data exchange via http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON). Other alternatives or comparisons are here: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/15699197/yaml-vs-gpb-vs-json-vs-xml-which-is-better. EWD.js is a suite of tools tools to interface the internet (e.g. astute semantics fileman product). GT.M as the database (via FIS GT.M), Node.js, socket.io, security protocols based off AWS, among other potential technologies.
6. Fileman (by George Timson, written is MUMPS) provides the meta-data (this concept seems to be data about data so like the who, what, when and where, etc about a specific data point or points) function for MUMPS applications like VistA. It allows non-programmers to more easily interface with the different moving parts and complex information present in a setting like a hospital.